Date of Birth: 19 February 1630
Reign: 1674–1680 CE.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Biography
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was born, near the city of Junnar in Pune district on 19 February 1630. His father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general who served the Deccan Sultanates. Though he received little formal education and most likely could neither read nor write. He is said to have possessed considerable erudition.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s Early Life:
- In 1645, the 15-year-old Shivaji bribed or persuaded the Bijapuri commander of the Torna Fort.
- Inayat Khan, to hand over the possession of the fort to him.
- Following his father’s death, Shivaji resumed raiding, seizing in 1656.
- The valley of Javali from Chandrarao More, a fellow Maratha feudatory of Adilshah.
- In the ensuing Battle of Pratapgarh fought on 10 November 1659.
- Shivaji’s forces decisively defeated the Bijapur Sultanate’s forces.
- Until 1657, Shivaji maintained peaceful relations with the Mughal Empire.
Shivaji maharaj was crowned as the king of the Marathas in a lavish ceremony at Raigad on 6 June 1674.
- He offered his assistance to Aurangzeb in conquering Bijapur. In return, Aurangzeb promised him of the formal recognition of his right to the Bijapuri forts and villages under his possession.
- Shivaji Maharaj’s confrontations with the Mughals began in March 1657, when two of Shivaji’s officers raided the Mughal territory near Ahmednagar.
- In October 1670, Shivaji sent his forces to harass the English at Bombay; as they had refused to sell him war material.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s Maratha Empire
- Shivaji was crowned king of the Marathas in a lavish ceremony at Raigad on 6 June 1674.
- Beginning in 1674, the Marathas undertook an aggressive campaign, raiding Khandesh (October).
- capturing Bijapuri Ponda (April 1675), Karwar (mid-year), and Kolhapur (July).
- Shivaji raided Athani in March 1676, and by years end besieged Belgaum and
- Vayem Rayim in modern-day northern Karnataka.
- At the end of 1676, Shivaji launched a wave of conquests in southern India.
- With a massive force of 30,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry.
- Shivaji maharaj established a competent and progressive civil rule with the help of disciplined military and well-structured administrative organizations.
- He innovated military tactics, pioneering unconventional methods, which leveraged strategic factors like geography, speed, and surprise and focused pinpoint attacks to defeat his larger and more powerful enemies.
- Shivaji revived ancient Hindu political traditions and court conventions and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit, rather than Persian, in court and administration.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s Death
- In late March 1680, Shivaji Maharaj fell ill with fever and dysentery. He died around 3–5 April 1680 at the age of 52.
- Shivaji Maharaj succeeded by his elder son Sambhaji.
Facts Related to Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
- Shivaji became the king of the Marathas in a lavish ceremony at Raigad on 6 June 1674.
- Battle of Pratapgarh war fought on 10 November 1659.
- Chhatrapati Shivaji died around 3–5 April 1680 at the age of 52 years.
The region, Vayem Rayim in modern-day is in northern Karnataka.