First Viceroy of India by the British Monarch – Lord Canning
Lord Canning [1856 to 1862 AD] was the last General appointed by the East India Company and first Viceroy of India appointed by the British monarch.
The main event of Lord Canning’s reign is the rebellion of 1857 AD, after which under the Government of India Act 1858 the rule of governance came under the control of the British Government from the East India Company.
- According to the Indian High Court Act of 1861, a High Court was established in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras.
The annulment of the theory of lapses was announced by Rani Victoria.
- In 1859 AD, there was a white revolt by European members of the company.
Reforms of Lord Lawrence
- In Lord Lawrence [1864 to 1869] time war with Bhutanese in 1865 AD happened.
- At that time the Punjab Taxation Act was passed.
- He started the first marine telegraph service between India and Europe in 1865 AD.
Reforms of Lord Mayo
- Lord Mayo [1869 to 1872 AD] had established two colleges- Memeyo College in Ajmer and Rajkot College in Kathiawar.
- At the same time, the first census was completed in 1872 AD.
- He had formed the Agriculture Department in 1872. In 1872, one prisoner killed Lordmeyo in Andaman.
Administration of Lord Lytton
Lord Lytton [1876 to 1880 AD] was a prominent poet and novelist and was famous in the literary world as “Owen Meredith”. On 1 January 1877 AD, a grand court was organized in Delhi and Empress Victoria was honored by the title “Kaiser a Hind”.
Lord Lytton reduced the maximum age limit from 21 years to 19 years to discourage Indians in service.
- Lord Lytton imposed strict restrictions on Indian newspapers in March 1878 AD under the Indian Language Newspaper Act (Vernacular Press Act).
- By the Indian Weapons Act 1878, Indians were required to obtain licenses for possession of arms.
- Lord Lytton reduced the maximum age limit from 21 years to 19 years to discourage Indians in service.
Redeemer of India- Lord Ripon
Lord Ripon increased the maximum age limit for the Civil Services Examinations from 19 years to 21 years.
- In the time of Lord Ripon, the first regular 10-year census was started in 1881 AD.
- The Lord Ripon attempted to bring similarities between the powers of Indian and European judges by Neilbert Bill, but this bill was not passed due to the opposition of Europeans.
- The rebellion against Ilbert Bill is known as the White Revolt.
Lord Dufferin And Third Anglo-Burmese War
At the time of Lord Dufferin [1884 to 1888 AD], on 28 December 1885 AD, Aoohom established the Indian National Congress. At the time of his, the Third Anglo-Burmese War [1885 – 1888 AD] was done in which upper Burma was merged into the English state.
Lord Lansdowne And Second Factory Act
At the time of Lord Lansdown [1888 to 1894 AD], a boundary was determined between British India and Afghanistan, which is popularly known as the Durand Line. In 1891 AD, the second factory act was passed in the time of Lord Lansdown.
Reforms of Lord Curzon
- The most disgusting work of Lord Curzon was the division of Bengal in 1905 AD.
Lord Curzon founded the Indian Archeology Department.
- During his time, an agricultural research institute was established in Pusa, Bihar.
Administartion of Lord Minto II
- The Congress party was split in the Congress session of Surat in 1907 AD.
- The Muslim League was formed in 1906 AD in the time of Lord Minto II.
- At his time the Marley Minto Improvement Act 1909 was passed, according to which separate election system was implemented for the Muslims.
Administration of Lord Harding II
- Lord Harding II [1910 to 1916] canceled the partition of Bengal.
Lord Harding II moved the capital of British India in Delhi from Calcutta in 1912AD.
- In Delhi, a grand court was held in Delhi to welcome King George V and Queen Mary.